Archaeological Research and Cultural heritage Management in Eswatini

In 2023, our team with members of the DAI, the Senckenberg Center for Human
for Human Evolution, the University of Tübingen, the University of Missouri and the
Eswatini National Trust Commission (ENTC) were again active at several sites in Eswatini.
active. As part of a DFG project (BA 6479/2-4, applicant Gregor D.
Bader, HEP), samples were taken at Lions Cavern for micromorphological investigations.
for micromorphological investigations. The samples are currently being
processing by Philippe Rentzel, Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science
IPAS of the University of Basel.

Excavations have also begun at the Muti Muti site in the Lobombo
Mountains near the Mozambican border. On the surface
the surface of the site, which is very probably untouched, pottery finds from the
Early Farming Communities as well as stone artifacts, which indicate a settlement in the
Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA). In addition, the walls are
covered with rock paintings which, due to their stylistic characteristics, could date from several
could date from several periods. All in all, the site therefore promises a longer and
and multi-phase settlement history and a wide range of source material to research various aspects.
research various aspects. Ceramic sherds were sent to the
luminescence laboratory of the Institute of Geography (Anja Zander) for dating.

At the end of the field campaign, our team organized a meeting with local civil society
representatives of civil society and the responsible authority ENTC. At this
This meeting revitalized the Swazi Archaeological Research Association (SARA).
The association aims to promote archaeological research, education and
protection of cultural heritage in Eswatini and to bring the topic closer to the general public.
to the general public.


Prof. Dr. Jörg Linstädter


Dr. Gregor Bader

Universität Tübingen

Heidi Vuchetich


Sabrina Stempfle M.SC.

Universität Hamburg

Gunther H. D. Möller

Universität Tübingen

Nina Stahl B.A.

Universität Tübingen

Figure captions

Fig. 1  Micromorphological sampling at Lions Cave [photo by J. Linstädter]

Fig. 2  Excavations at Muti Muti shelter [photo by J. Linstädter]

Fig. 3  Finding-spot Muti Muti [photo by J. Linstädter]

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